Sunday, 6 March 2016

Research Fraud and White Paper Abuse

Recently the Online Think Tank took up this issue of the future or white papers and scientific research papers and the fraud the goes on. From Global Warming Claims to breakthrough medical discoveries we see abuse. There have been issues with cloning, scientific discovery and commercial advertising and promotions. Another thought on the white paper abuses? One thinker tanker mentioned;
"I have been seeing "Sales Brochures" come from my "white paper" searches and alert services now for about 3-4 years and it is getting worse. One recent article I read suggested that the Internet might eliminate "white papers" which bothers me, because it means all my Grandfathers white papers (70) will become irrelevant, but that information is very important to even today's sciences, as I see people still cite his work."
Additionally, the Drug Industry "Big Pharma" is abusing the scientific research domain and peer review system like the IT Type technology companies abuse use of white papers. These are of course huge issues, as Grandma is on drugs and 17% of the population is taking Prozac or make me feel good drugs. While the tax payers are picking up the tab. On the abusive use of white papers as sales brochures one has to ask if they can even be taken seriously any more?
If something is not done the ethical nature of research will be worth nothing. I certainly hope this article is of interest and that is has propelled thought. The goal is simple; to help you in your quest to be the best in 2007. I thank you for reading my many articles on diverse subjects, which interest you.
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Essay Writing Tips - Creating a Compelling Introduction

When it comes to writing essays, many would argue that the introduction is the key to whether your essay is a success or failure. The introduction should serve to inform, inspire and potentially educate the reader, but this is only possible if the introduction is written in such a way that it can be deemed compelling. How you achieve this will obviously depend to some extent on the subject matter but there are some key points to consider, no matter what the subject, which could help you to achieve the compelling introduction to open your essay.
Firstly, remember that your introduction doesn't need to be, and indeed shouldn't be too lengthy. Using excess words or developing topics or themes too thoroughly at this stage will leave you struggling to write original content later on in your essay, when the arguments need to be powerful and thought provoking. If you explain all your theories and ideas in the first paragraph the reader will have no reason to read on. Furthermore, succinct writing, especially in the introduction allows for a clear background to your essay to be established.
Background information is essential for any sound essay, and the introduction is the point at which this information should be entered. Providing a background to your question, hypothesis and research will allow your essay to be set in context, making it a far more compelling read.
Once you have laid out the background, you should then briefly mention the key points of your essay, consider what you are trying to prove or disprove. If your argument is countered or supported by other research, state how your work will differ or show similarities to these schools of thought.
Having informed the reader about the background, and stated your key arguments you can then go on to explain exactly how your essay will be developed in terms of research techniques, literature reviews, experiments, and analysis. Again, be sure not to reveal all of the secrets of your essay in your introduction, just enough to inform, enlighten and encourage the reader to want to find out more.
Remember that if you're trying to get someone to want to read your work, it helps if you actually want to write it in the first place; therefore before you start any writing, make sure your essay is dealing with a topic that interests you. This will then come across in your writing and will help to make not only a compelling introduction but a compelling essay in its entirety.
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Telenursing Approach - Evidence Based Challenge

Introduction-The term "basic health services" is defined by UNICEF and WHO (1965) as a network of co-ordinated, peripheral and intermediate health units capable of performing effectively, a selected group of functions essential to the health of an area and assuring the availability of competent professional personnel to perform these functions. WHO has also proclaimed health as a fundamental right of every individual and society.
India is a developing country with a large and diverse geographical terrain, and a huge population with a great deal of ethnic and cultural variation. It has all kinds of health care providers ranging from well qualified doctors of allopathy, homeopathy, ayurveda, registered medical practitioners to untrained providers of medical aid, herbalists, and magico-religious practitioners. The importance of the involvement of practitioners belonging to different systems of medicine in the health care system has been noted by various committees and in various health related policy documents from time to time. The National Health Policy (2002) advocated expanding the pool of medical practitioners to include a cadre of licentiates of medical practice, practitioners of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy. It further recommended that different categories of medical manpower should be permitted medical practice after adequate training. The National Population Policy (2000) recommended the involvement of manpower from different health agencies to expand the body of effective health care providers. Shrivastva Committee (1975) recommended primary health care within the community through trained workers to keep the health in the hands of the people.
The governments of developing countries are unable to deliver free health services as the basic right of the citizen in a holistic manner.Accessibility of health agency is an important aspect of its availability; hence a vital factor affecting treatment seeking behaviour of consumers. To make provision for basic health care to all the people is a difficult task for administrators in a country like India. Thus, eliminating geographical barriers, and to help develop new strategies and services to appeal to consumers' various needs and desires is a big challenge.In spite of a host of national health policies; the health care indices significantly lag behind those of the developed countries. The quantitative and qualitative demographic transition in the population and disease profile along with inadequate health care delivery infrastructure is a fundamental concern for the country. In India, government from time to time declared deadlines for achievement of goals in health and various related areas. At present, in addition to other time bound goals of current eleventh five year plan, some of the important goals to be achieved by 2000-2015 are to increase utilization of public health facilities, and to establish a system of surveillance, national health accounts and health statistics.
Moreover, the increased need for health care has not been matched with a commensurate increase in resource, and the imbalance is growing. In developed countries telenursing applications are available in homes, home care agencies, hospital based telemedicine centres, hospices and rehabilitation centres whereas in Indian scenario, its need for implementation is being considered vis-a-vis telemedicine. The evidence based approach can mobilize application of the knowledge generated through research to meet the consumers' health needs to bridge the gap between what is known and what to be done. Telenursing approach can serve as a new and valuable asset to utilize telecommunications to support the practice of nursing and provision of professional nursing care to the patients, health care professionals, as well as administrators on remote residential or clinical settings. The present paper presents an evidence based challenges for telenursing approach with an attempt to assess and study the trends of utilization of public and private (formal and informal) health agencies available in different communities of the Union Territory, Chandigarh, India.
Further, implementation of a holistic national health programme would require an assessment of the available health systems. In addition there is a nation wide need to find various aspects of the utilization of health services in different populations and geographical areas which may be helpful for finding out some of the reasons why the goal of "health for all" was not achieved and the utilization of public health care services was very low. It will further aid to fulfill the time bound national health goals. Thus, the considerable promise of e-health in addressing issues of quality, efficiency, cost, and access to care should be placed at the forefront of our national effort to reform healthcare.
Need of the study-With an attempt to discover the relationship between the consumer and the health agencies; the present paper intended to investigate and address major bottlenecks that may impede effective implementation of telenursing approach. Further, the need was felt for positive return on investment by targeting the consumers' real needs and to hunt aspects which may be helpful for finding out some of the reasons for slow or non achievement of health goals and low utilization of public health care services.
Methodology-The study was conducted through a cross sectional survey of geographical areas of the urban, the rural, the slum and the rehabilitated sector in the Union Territory of Chandigarh, India. Data about utilization of health care services, and factors affecting treatment seeking behaviour of the consumers was explored through formal and informal interviews of 600 consumers. Observational visits were made to health agencies and study areas.
Results-The study found that majority i.e. 490(81.7%) out of 600 subjects most often used the indigenous health agency at one time or the other.Amongst reasons for utilization of indigenous health agencies and majority consumers perceived cause of diseases to be supernatural powers,bad karma/bad nazar (bad fortune), kala jadu performed by evil people to affect their families, no cure was available in the Allopathic system of medicine, illnesses can be cured through pujas, jharas or animal sacrifices,tying of sacred thread given by sadhus/babas cures illnesses, and the treatment of ailments through yoga and pranayama.
Indigenous health agencies were nearest to majority i.e. 59.9% subjects which included maximum number 87.3% of the slum subjects. As the indigenous agency was the second amongst most often used health care agency; the accessibility and availability of the indigenous agencies, along with other factors, are likely explanations for their high utilization.
On the other hand, it can be seen that in spite of the indigenous health agency being the nearest health agency in the urban and the rural sector (40% and 63.3% subjects respectively) it was not the most often utilized (utilization was by 11.3% of the urban and 20% of the rural subjects). The use of indigenous agencies was significantly higher in less educated people.
It was found that who utilized indigenous health agency most (53.1% respondents) were from lowest monthly income group (Rs.1000-5000). These included 93.3% of the slum, and 100% of the rehabilitated subjects. Chi square value of 110.617 and p value <0.001 indicated a highly significant difference in the use of health agencies in different income groups. Thus, the use of indigenous agencies was significantly higher in lower income group.Majority of people from low income group availed health services from informal health agencies, which also happened to be the cheapest agencies. Thus, from above it was found that services of indigenous health agencies were actively utilized them in the slum and the rehabilitated sector.
Recommendations-Education and documentation will bring better quality of health care services through formal recognition of standardized private indigenous health agencies and health workers as opposed to the reliance on quacks/faith healers. Thus, with greater responsibility in telecare, telenursing has to struggle a long way to replace old challenges with new possibilities in weaning consumers away from untrained private indigenous health providers and faith healers hence safeguarding the interest of the consumers. This will not only save people from being misled by superstitions and unscientific practices, but would also conform to the objective of the national health goals in developing countries like India.
There is a need for collaboration and integration of services of the government health care agencies with private formal and private indigenous (informal) health care providers to achieve national health goals.The right mix of health care professionals can attend to people's most frequent needs up to their satisfaction levels.
Therefore, the investment plans should be intended to meet towards today's evidence based needs and challenges with steady progress toward a longer term vision.
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Reference Term Paper

Writing a good paper on reference should be studied and done by every student. As a student, you must also be creative. You should not just base your mind on looking at other papers, taking from knowledge but adding non to it. If you have been asked to compose a reference paper, the following guidelines should be of help to you:
Your reference paper must have a topic. This is necessary for your paper because it is the bases on which the whole of your research will revolve. The topic of your reference paper should be about something of great interest to you and to your readers. The topic should be narrowed towards a particular aspect in life; maybe in an aspect which you have lots of experience in. This is a way to show your teacher and your readers that you have mastered your coursework. Remember that it will be impossible to conveniently and confidently talk about what you have not mastered.
A reference paper has a good topic sentence. A good topic sentence is that which reflects the title of your research paper and brings out what runs through each of the paragraphs. Take note that there is no rule as to where to place your topic sentence. It can either be placed at the beginning of your paper, at the middle or at the end of your paper. It could be placed at the beginning of the paper to tell of what is to come in the paragraphs. It could be placed in the middle of your paper to serve as a link or transition between what you have announced and what you are still to bring out. It could be placed at the end of the paper. This third situation is rare but it is used when the writer is attempting to plead his or her case to the reader to have the same opinion with him or her. The details of the argument may be summed through the paragraphs, and then in a spectacular way, the topic sentence is introduced.
A reference paper should be able to leave an impression in the minds of the readers. Your term paper should move from a mere piece of writing to something extraordinary. Therefore, revise and edit your paper to perfect your English. Keep in mind that the ability to make mistakes is inherent in every scholar, but the ability to recognize and correct these errors is something rare. This is what makes your project a reference to other scholar.
Reference term paper writing is not an activity done in a matter of days. This involves a rigorous process which has to take ample time for it to be completed. Therefore, you should begin writing as soon as the paper is awarded to you. Avoid starting too late only to be caught up by the apprehension of failure. You may be tempted to buy a paper.
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Mississippi Grad Student Seeks Old Research Paper - Sorry He Did Not Have a Copy Machine Back in '94

Thirty-seven-year-old Michael Rosa of tiny Itta Bena, Mississippi lost a research paper he wrote as an undergraduate student. "I wish I had been a more serious student, then. I wish I had realized what I'd written and the importance," he said.
Rosa remembers turning in his paper and then forgetting about it until this fall, 15 years later, when taking a graduate political science class.
Again, he has been asked to write a research paper and it is due in two weeks.
Both assignments? Write about a significant Mississippi black history incident.
If only Rosa could figure out how to put his hands on the paper he wrote in 1994 on Emmett Till, a paper that included a personal interview with one of Till's murderers, Roy Bryant, the assignment would have more personal meaning today, he said.
"Back then, we didn't have computers, printers and copy machines. But I wish I could get the original paper back. That would certainly help with this assignment," he said.
Rosa has a fascinating story to tell, even if he cannot recover the most important student paper he has ever written -- probably the most historically significant paper he will ever write.
Rosa was studying black history at Valley State University, the small, historically black college near his hometown in the heart of the Mississippi Delta in 1994 when a black history professor issued the first assignment that is close to the project he is currently trying to finish.
The first time around, Rosa knew from the start he wanted to write about Till, a 14-year-old Chicago schoolboy who was murdered while visiting relatives in the Delta in 1955. The event is said to have sparked the modern civil rights movement and it is a piece of history that has picked up interest in the past few years as the FBI investigated this civil rights cold case.
This fall, Till's original casket was moved to the Smithsonian museum for protection and eventual display, after the Chicago cemetery where his body is buried was subjected to grave robberies. Till's grave was unharmed but his original casket was found abandoned in an old shed.
Further, the race for historical research is on in Mississippi as the state prepares to move into the future, with a new pledge that its school children learn the truth about their state's civil rights past. The classroom program is the outgrowth of a law passed in 2006 by the Legislature and statewide implementation is planned for the 2010-2011 school year.
Rosa knew about Till because the murder was so shocking it made international news in 1955, just one year after U.S. Supreme Court's ruling on Brown v. the Topeka Board of Education that declared the end to segregated schools. Till's murder took place near Rosa's home town.
Till, visiting relatives in the Delta, allegedly whistled at a white woman, Carolyn Bryant, who with her husband ran a small grocery story in Money, a nearby cotton hamlet even smaller than Itta Bena.
Rosa was working on his first school assignment in 1994 when his cousin, Pete Walker, asked him about his paper. As it turned out, Rosa's grandfather, "probably a Klansman," had bonded out Till's murderers from jail in nearby Greenwood.
"My grandfather, Landy Walker, lived in the same small town of Phillips near Money. It was a small community and everyone helped each other, so that's probably why my grandfather did this," Rosa said.
The cousin told Rosa he could help him with his research paper by providing a first-hand opportunity to meet Roy Bryant, who with J.W. Milam killed the young visitor. They were never convicted but later confessed their guilt to a national magazine reporter.
The two traveled to Ruleville, about 30 miles northwest of Itta Bena, where Rosa remembers meeting Bryant at his watermelon stand on the corner of the highway heading west to Cleveland.
"He was cordial when I told him about my paper. Then he started talking in great detail. He was giving his personal view about what happened that night -- he really didn't mention J.W. Milam (Till's second killer) or anyone else, but I could tell he hadn't changed one bit since that night.
"He used the N word over and over -- maybe 100 times -- when he was telling me about what happened. He said at first, after his wife told him what Till had done -- that he was just going to whoop the boy. But he said Emmett made some remarks that pushed him overboard. So they killed him."
Bryant told Rosa he was very drunk that night and said they killed Till and tied a gin fan around his neck while they were still in Drew. "It sounded like Till was either dead or unconscious when they did that to him."
Talking to Bryant was " talking to a stone cold killer. He showed absolutely no remorse. It was like he was able to vividly recall what happened that night."
Rosa remembers that Bryant said his wife, Carolyn, was with the men. "He said he came home to the store and she said Till [using a derogatory term] had 'come on to her.' Bryant said she went with him and Milam to the uncle's house [Rev. Moses Wright] to kidnap Till and that she identified him, that she pointed him out."
Rosa remembers Bryant explaining they killed Emmett Till "because he didn't understand where the hell he was -- that he was in the South," and "because he wasn't scared at all, like he should have been."
Bryant was a bitter man who was angry at the white community for refusing to do business at his watermelon stand, Rosa said. "Bryant claimed that Milam 'got all the money' from the magazine interview. He died two weeks after we talked."
A racist grandfather can easily poison his family's beliefs for generations to come. But the circle was broken for Rosa, he says, because his grandmother made the difference. Rosa's mother worked long hours and his maternal grandmother, "a kind soul," took care of him.
The family was poor and lived at the edge of the black side of town where Rosa "saw racism while I was growing up on a daily basis."
Other white kids went to the town's all-white private academy. But Rosa lived 100 feet from the public school and decided to go there -- from elementary through high school.
"Some of the white families got together and offered to pay for my tuition to the white school. They didn't want to see me go to the public school with black kids. I was the only white student."
A neighbor woman once offered to pay for his schooling through college, if he would change to the private academy. "I told her 'no' and she said, '...well, at least don't associate with any of them.'"
Rosa knew, as a young child, he did not want to "be this way."
Recently, as a mentor at the public school, Rosa was asked by the administrator if he had any ideas for how to reach out to white children and get them to come to the public school.
"It's tough. When I was growing up, one side of town was all white. Now there are only three white families left. Everyone else has moved out into the country and they home school or send their kids to the Pillow Academy over in Greenwood."
Meanwhile, Rosa said he plans to sit quietly and try to think back and remember as much as he can about the interview he had with Roy Bryant so many years ago.
"I really do remember most of what he said, very vividly. It is important history and I want to be able to pass it on to others."
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The Causes of Paper Thin Skin, and What You Can Do to Make Skin Thicker and More Flexible

The causes of paper thin skin are well known. Researchers have understood for many years what causes the problem. However, they aren't quick to offer solutions. Sometimes they seem to be saying it's a necessary part of aging and you just have to live with it.
Not true!
Here is a guide to what works when your skin is paper thin.
Thin skin problems can be severe
You may consider thin skin a minor issue. You might feel that you simply cut and bruise too easily, and take longer than most people to heal. But thin skin can be treated, and should be. Especially if you feel that your skin is really "paper thin."
Here is why. You know your own body. If feel your skin is "paper thin," that is probably close to the truth. And that can be a very bad thing.
You may be easily wounded and exposing yourself to bigger health issues. It may take weeks for your body to heal a minor bruise or cut that disappears in a couple of days for most people. A severe bruise, or scraping your skin badly from a fall, for example, might very well put you in the hospital.
The causes of thin skin
If you have a history of long-term illness, you may have taken steroid medications like Predisone. These anti-inflammatory drugs can be life savers. But they have terrible side effects -- especially if they are used over a long period. A weak immune system, cataracts, weakened bones -- and yes, thin, fragile skin -- are some of them.
For most people, the problem is not so much illness and over-use of prescription drugs, but lack of skin nutrition. Your skin loses collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid -- and you need an abundance of all of these to build youthful, healthy skin. As skin ages, it loses strength and elasticity, begins to sag and wrinkle, and gets much thinner.
The answer to the problem
You can reverse all the most important causes of skin aging and thinning. A couple of strategies will help, and I'll tell you the specific ingredients to look for in a skin care product.
1. Your diet matters. If you're more likely to grab a cookie and a bottle of soda pop than a meal when you get hungry, that's bad news for your skin. Sugar has many nasty habits, and one of them is to cause something called glycation. The process of glycation underlies the destruction of collagen and other proteins in the skin. The answer is to cut back hard on added sugar in your food and drinks.
2. Supplements can help, too. Take one containing at least 50 mg a day of Carnosine, which both prevents glycation and stops it once it has begun.
3. Skin care products can actually help your skin rebuild itself -- if they contain the right ingredients. You need plenty of collagen to thicken and strengthen your skin. You can't rub it in -- collagen is too big a molecule to be absorbed through the skin.
But you can stimulate the skin to boost its own production of collagen and elastin, and to grow new cells faster. An ingredient called Cynergy TK has shown in clinical trials that it does all of these things.
The problem with hyaluronic acid (or hyaluronan) is that it gets used up fast. You have to replace a third of it every day. You can give your skin a break by using an extract of seaweed called Phytessence Wakame. It blocks the action of a skin enzyme that destroys hyaluronic acid. Phytessence Wakame blocked the enzyme's action by 52 percent in trials. This allows the skin to rebuild its hyaluronic acid levels.
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Writing Style - The Differences Between Academic and Casual Writing

Everyone knows that you should write your term papers differently from your Facebook posts, and your journal submissions should be written differently than newspaper columns. What exactly are the differences between casual and academic writing? Between formal and informal writing?
The biggest difference
The single most important difference between casual writing and academic writing is style. That is, casual writing does not require you to adhere to any published style guide. Academic writing, or any formal writing for that matter, requires that you adhere to a style guide. Some schools and teachers will go so far as to specify which style guide to use.
What is a style guide?
A style guide is a manual, or document, that specifies a set of rules and standards, followed by writers to facilitate clear communication. The guide for is a web page that indicates how to write articles to be included in the EzineArticles directory, for instance. Each school and corporation can have its own, personalized style guide.
Main style guides do exist, however.
1. The Chicago Manual of Style was one of the first style guides published in the United States. Currently (as of 2010) in its 16th edition, this style guide first came out in 1906. People often refer to "the Chicago style," but people also refer to it as CMS or CMOS.
2. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is in its sixth edition (as of 2010). This style guide was developed so professors and students could read papers more easily-and so comprehension was increased. APA Style calls for only two fonts in a paper, and the body of the paper must be written in Times New Roman 12 point. Underlining, bolding, and italics are permitted in some places.
3. The Elements of Style was written to help people write clearly. While the book has its critics, it is one of the shortest style guides.
4. The MLA Style Manual, 3rd edition, is the Modern Language Association's style guide. First published in 1985, this manual is used by many universities, colleges, and students.
5. Microsoft wrote The Manual of Style for Technical Publication, and this document is used for internal and external Microsoft documentation.
Common style guide conventions vs. informal writing
Generally, it is okay to use contractions (like it's) in informal writing. Academic writing requires writing out both words.
Technical terms
If you are writing informally to a group of people in your same field, you might use technical terms frequently and never explain them. If you are writing to a group of people that have no relationship with your industry at all, you try to take the technical words out altogether. If you are writing academically, you must explain the term the first time you use it.
This is not different between informal and academic writing. Most often, active sentences are better. Both the APA and the Chicago style guides concur with this.
Grammatical person
The grammatical person is the point of view, or you might have heard it phrased as first person, second person, third person, and fourth person. The first person perspective contains a lot of "I" or "we" statements like "I fed the dog." First person is the writer's perspective. The second person is you, the person the writer is writing to. The third person is associated with pronouns such as he, she, it, and they. The third person is not me (the writer) or you (the reader). Sometimes academics use fourth-person sentences like, "One should always behave when one is in public."
Informal and casual writing uses the first, second, and third person point of view, as appropriate. While academics often write in the fourth person, I have yet to find a basis for that style of writing in style guides. Style guides facilitate clear writing and fourth person, one-statements are anything but clear.
The grammatical person needed for a sentence often depends on if the sentence is active or passive.
Academic writing requires citations. If you are state "X is true," you need to cite either where you found that statement. If you created that statement, your words must clearly show that.
Sentence length
Casual writing tends to have short sentences. (Bad casual writing has run-on sentences.) Academic, formal writing uses longer sentences. Take heed though. The goal of any writing is to get a point across, and if your sentence is too long, you will defeat that purpose.
Colloquial expressions and cliches
While "awesome," "da bomb," "the bees knees," "kids," "nose to the grindstone," and "dude" permeate Facebook, these words and phrases are not used in academic writing.
All your friends might know what LOL (and in the case of the ferret community, DOL), but whenever you use an abbreviation in an academic paper, you first need to write it out and connect it to the abbreviation so people know what you are talking about.
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